Quercetin is a flavonol compound that is widely distributed in the plant kingdom and has a variety of biological activities.
The rutin (rutin) of quercetin is widely distributed in nature, and the content is high, such as the content of Sophora japonica up to more than 20%. Rutin is extracted from Sophora japonica flower bud , and then after acid hydrolysis to get quercetin powder.
[Synonyms] Quercetin, Quercetin, Meletin, Sophretin.
[Chemical name] 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-Flavone
[Molecular formula and relative molecular mass] C15H10O7; 302 
[Physical and chemical properties]
Yellow powder (methanol), its dihydrate is yellow needle-like crystals.
It becomes anhydrous at 95 ~ 97°C, with a melting point of 313 ~ 314°C (decomposition).
It is soluble in hot ethanol (1:23), cold ethanol (1:300), soluble in methanol, ethyl acetate, glacial acetic acid, pyridine, etc., insoluble in petroleum ether, benzene, ether, chloroform, and almost insoluble in water.
The alkaline aqueous solution is yellow, and the ethanol solution tastes very bitter. Under ultraviolet light, blue fluorescence appears. Adding AlCl3 ethanol solution becomes yellow-green fluorescence, and the hydrochloric acid-magnesium powder reaction appears red. 
Quercetin is a flavonol compound. Flavonoids mostly exist in the form of glycosides. Due to the different types and positions of the connected glycoside a variety of flavonoid glycosides are formed. What make up flavonoid glycosides is mostly monosaccharides. Flavonols have poor water solubility, while their glycosides are more soluble in water.
Quercetin is widely present in the bark, flowers, leaves, buds, seeds, and fruits of many plants, mostly in the form of glycosides, such as rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, etc.
Quercetin can resist free radicals, complex or capture free radicals to prevent lipid peroxidation in the body; it can directly inhibit tumors, and effectively exert anti-cancer and anti-cancer effects; it also has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and prevention of diabetes complications. Strong biological activity. In addition, quercetin has the effects of lowering blood pressure, enhancing capillary resistance, reducing capillary fragility, lowering blood lipids, dilating coronary arteries, increasing coronary blood flow, etc. It also has an adjuvant therapeutic effect on patients with coronary heart disease and hypertension. Quercetin is non-toxic, so it is of great significance to the treatment and prevention of cancer, aging, and cardiovascular diseases, and has great development value.
Summarizing the current research results, it has anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-tumor, hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, immunomodulation and other biological activities and a wide range of pharmacological effects. It is useful for the treatment of bacterial infections, viral infections, tumors, diabetes, Both hyperlipidemia and immune system diseases have very important clinical significance.
How to produce?
The preparation methods of quercetin include extraction and separation, acid hydrolysis, enzymatic transformation, etc., of which enzymatic transformation is the most practical.
Natural extraction and separation
Since the content of quercetin in plants is only a few thousandths to a few ten thousandths, and the extraction and separation are difficult and costly, the production of quercetin directly from plants is not very practical. But in the analysis, identification of flavonoids or preparation of pure samples for analysis, quercetin extraction and separation technology should be used.
The extraction methods of rutin mainly include alkaline extraction and acid precipitation, organic solvent extraction, and dipping. Among them, alkaline extraction and acid precipitation is the most practical. Select the 0.05% NaOH solution to boil for 20 minutes, filter it while it is hot, and extract 4 times in the same way to obtain an alkali aqueous solution of rutin, add acid to make it precipitate, and then add acid to hydrolyze after filtration to obtain water-insoluble quercetin. Filter, wash with water, and dry to obtain insoluble quercetin .
Enzyme conversion method
Enzymatic hydrolysis of rutin is used to prepare a large amount of quercetin monomer with less content in plants. The operation is simple and safe. The whole process is economical and applicable, with large yield, suitable for industrial production, and the purity of the product is >90%, which can meet the needs of food and clinical applications. Therefore, enzymatic transformation is undoubtedly a promising preparation method.
Quercetin powder is potentially mutagenic but this does not mean that it is carcinogenic. Many in vivo studies believe that quercetin is not carcinogenic.
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